(The following information was complied for all potential, novice and experienced Papillon & Phalène owners alike.)

*** Papillon Health & Genetics Link ***

*** Pet Articles ***

Very Informative Papillon Books


by Virginia Newton. This is an ideal introductory book for the new Papillon owner or anyone considering one as a companion. It provides a wealth of Papillon-specific information on basic care, grooming, training, safety concerns, etc., and gives valuable advice on how to find and purchase a Papillon. With several b/w photos and sketches. ©1989, 99 pages. $29.00 hardbound, $24.00 paperback (checks payable to Papillon Club of America), available only from: Sandra Schumacher, 3417-13th Avenue So., Great Falls, MT 59405.


by Papillon Club of America, Inc. The AKC breed standard with illustrations to help visualize the ideal qualities of the breed, as well as common faults. $5.00, (checks payable to Papillon Club of America), available only froim: Sandra Schumacher, 3417-13th Avenue So., Great Falls, MT 59405.


by Carolyn & David Roe (England). Good reference book on the breed. Contains broad overview of history, care and training, breeding, showing, first aid, and bloodlines around the world; but not in depth on any topic. Plenty of excellent b/w photos. ©1992, hardbound, 160 pgs. OUT OF PRINTÑMay find at out-of-print and rare book dealers. Copies may be available from 4-M Enterprises, 1-800-487-9867, www.adognet.com/4M/welcome.html


by Hoflin Publishing, Inc. Annual compilation of breed information. Contains interviews with noted Papillon breeders and trainers; Greats of the Past, annual U.S. rankings of conformation, obedience, top producers, and top breeders; many breeder/kennel advertisements and photos; special features; and general interest articles. ©1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998,1999,2000. $40.00 per annual issue. Available from 4-M Enterprises, 1-800-487-9867

Papillon Club of America FIVE YEAR Handbook 1991-1995

Kennel/breeder ads, breed history update (BIS, National Specialty & obedience winners, top producers) for 1991-95, tons of b/w photographs. ©1996, soft/spiral bound, 351 pgs. $20 (checks payable to Papillon Club of America), available only from: Sandra Schumacher, 3417-13th Avenue So., Great Falls, MT 59405.

Papillon Club of America FIVE YEAR Handbook 1985-1990 Papillon Club of America FIVE YEAR Handbook 1985-1990
Same as above but covers 1985-90. ©1991, soft/spiral bound, 310 pgs. OUT OF PRINT--$15 while supplies last.

Papillons & Other Friends

by Gwen Swann. Reminiscences of a breeder of Papillons for over 60 years, covers the history and standard of the breed in Britain and the U.S. Loaded with 200 b/w photos of Papillons and the drop-eared Phalene variety. ©1992, hardbound, 186 pages. $39.95. Available from 4-M Enterprises, 1-800-487-9867


by Clarice Waud & Mark Hutchings. Considered the "bible" of the breed to date. Thoroughly covers the history and development of the breed in all countries as well as influential breeders throughout the world. Includes care, breeding, showing, exporting, pet ownership, and more. Filled with exquisite b/w and color pictures, extensive appendixes. ©1985, hardbound, 300 pages. OUT OF PRINTÑ$75.00 while supplies last. Copies may still be available from 4-M Enterprises,


by Mrs. D. Christian Gauss. The classic "pet store" book. Adapted from a 1960 version, it has limited Papillon-specific information. Mostly contains material used for all books in this series, regardless of the breed. Several b/w and color photos, mostly of pet Papillons. ©1990, hardbound. $9.95. Available from 4-M Enterprises, 1-800-487-9867

Same as above but covers 1985-90. ©1991, soft/spiral bound, 310 pgs. OUT OF PRINT--$15 while supplies last.

Training Books

Competitive Obedience Training for the Small Dog

by Barbara Cecil & Gerianne Darnell. Special techniques for training small dogs. Covers novice through utility and includes sources of special equipment. Both authors are long-time trainers and exhibitors of top-winning obedience competition Papillons. ©1994, paperback. $19.95 (DBS) $20.00 (4-M)

Positively Obedience

Good Manners For The Family Dog by Barbara Handler. Covers practical, positive, non-violent ways to train the family dog without the unnecessary obedience exercises you will never use. © 1987, paperback. $10.95 (4-M)


by M.L. Smith. Yes! It is possible to train your dog to "do its business" on verbal command. Over 15,000 dogs have been trained during the past 10 years with this remarkably easy and rapid technique. © 1984, paperback. $6.95 (DBS), $5.95 (4-M)


by Kathy Diamond Davis. Dogs can reach out to the elderly, disabled and children as therapy dogs. Everything you need to train your dog to work in a care-giving facility. © 1992, 256 pgs. $25.95 (DBS & 4-M)

Direct Book Service (DBS)

1-800-776-2665 4-M Enterprises, Inc. (4-M ) 1-800-487-9867
Email: dgctbook@cascade.net Email: Books4M@aol.com www2.dogandcatbooks.com/directbook/ www.adognet.com/4M/welcome.html



1-919-233-9780 5580 Centerview Drive, Raleigh, NC 27606-3390 Overflowing with information and photos covering all aspects of dog care and ownership, including health issues, showing, training, behavior, grooming, breed history, breedings, breed-specific columns, AKC news, etc. This is the ultimate purebred dog magazine! $29.95 for 12 monthly issues (includes free Events Calendar giving details on every upcoming AKC dog show and performance event held nationwide)


Monthly newsletter of the Papillon Club of America is available to PCA members only (Contact Stephanie Jackson, Pap Talk Editor, ( @ paptalk@aol.com) for further information.


Newsletter designed primarily for pet owners, with articles of general interest. Subscription rate: $20.00 (US or Cdn funds) annual (6 issues). Belle Darris, editor, 35 Brookside Crescent, RR #1, Kentville, Nova Scotia, Canada B4N 3V7. Phone (902) 678-1882. Email: kinduhaven@ns.sympatico.ca



Explanation of the Papillon breed standard, using various Papillons to illustrate attributes and faults, including preferred markings, coat, movement, structure, size, etc. 21 minutes. $35.00 (4-M). Also available directly from the AKC.

Health & Diet for Dogs

"API's Investigative Report on Pet Food"

by the Animal Protection Institute (API) This report is an honest, enlightening, and in-depth report regarding the commercial cat/dog food industry in the U.S., written by a non-profit organization dedicated to informing and educating the public in order to encourage the humane treatment of all animals. Available free of charge; order by phone: 1-800-348-7387, email: onlineapi@aol.com, or website: http://www.g-net.com/api.htm

Dr. Pitcairn's Complete Guide to Natural Health for Dogs & Cats

by Richard Pitcairn DVM Whether you are just starting out on your quest for better health for your pet or are already applying holistic methods, this is the classic natural pet care book. Will help you understand and apply all kinds of natural health therapies including vitamins, herbs, homeopathic remedies, and making your own pet food. Every pet owner should have this on hand! ©1995, paperback.  $16.95 (DBS & 4-M) Also available in most health food stores


by Volhard & Brown Learn how to use alternative therapies for your dog's health and behavior problems. Acupressure, acupuncture, ionized water, homoeopathy, chiropractic to name a few. Includes Volhard's "Back to Basics" homemade dog food program. Anyone interested in holistic veterinary care needs this! ©1995, 287 pages. $24.95 (DBS & 4-M)

Back To Basics, The Natural Diet--A Guide to a Balanced, Homemade Dog Food

by Wendy Volhard Control what is in your dog's food by making your own. It's easier than you think. Contents include nutritional requirements for young and adult dogs, and many easy-to-prepare recipes. Useful for dealing with allergies. ©1994, 30 pages. $8.00 (DBS), $7.00 (4-M)


by Linda Tellington-Jones Revolutionary natural method that promotes healing, training, and communicating with your pet. TTouch combines may advantages of traditional veterinary medicine with therapeutic body work. Improves or corrects aggression, submissive urination, artritis, barking, biting, licking, fear, itching, car sickness, and more. Here is the story of how techniques evolved. Last chapter describes techniques. ©1992, 177 pages. $11.95 (DBS & 4-M)


by Linda Tellington-Jones The TTouch uses light stroking techniques to help calm animals, restore confidence, ease pain and tension. The book tells the story of how Linda developed her techniques by working with every species of animal imaginable. The videos are the best way to learn to do the touches and they come with additional instructional material to make the information even easier to put into use! ©1994, video 84 Min. $39.95 (DBS)

Internet FAQs

There are nearly 100 FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) available for dogs. For a complete listing, get the "Complete List of RPD FAQs", posted bimonthly in rec.pets.dogs, and is available via the Web at http://www.zmall.com/pet_talk/dog-faqs/lists/faq-list.html, or via email by sending a message to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with: send usenet/news.answers/dogs-faq/faq-list in the body of the message.

The Papillon FAQ contains a great deal of useful information about the breed. The address is:

Internet Lists

An Email list is a method of discussion among people with similar interests. Lists are FREE. Once you subscribe, you can send and receive email from the list. If you send a message to the list, it is transmitted to all subscribers on the list (often hundreds). Some lists have only a few messages a week, some have many messages per day. If the traffic is too much for you, you can elect to receive a "digest" form (1-2 emails a day instead of every message being sent separately).

For a complete list of dog-related email lists by email, send a message to: mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with the following commnd in the body of the message: send usenet/news.answers/dogs-faq/email-lists


This list is devoted to the discussion of the Papillon and open to all Papillon owners, prospective owners, breeders, exhibitors, or anyone with an interest in the breed. Anything related to Papillons may be discussed, along with questions, brags, friendly chat, etc. The list also hopes to meet public education needs, foster ethical breeding practices, and promote responsible dog ownership.

To subscribe:

Send email message to: LISTSERV@APPLE.EASE.LSOFT.COM

Leave subject line blank In body of message, type: SUBSCRIBE Papillon-L YourNameHere


A friendly exchange of any and all topics for those who are devoted to the Papillon dog. This list is for those who respect both the freedom of speech and the feelings of others. There is no boss, the list is a self governing democratic entity. New members are subject to acceptance by the current members. You can visit the Butterflynet homepage at: http://welcome.to/butterflynet

To subscribe:

Go to : http://www.onelist.com/subscribe.cgi/BUTTERFLYNET

Note: you will have to register with ONElist before subscribing to Butterflynet. It is VERY easy to join.


Mary Salvail & her friend's Papillon list provides an informative yet entertaining Internet discussion forum for pet owners, prospective owners, and breeders of Papillons to discuss their dogs in an unrestricted environment.

To join, send a Email to: majordomo@gcstation.net

Leave the subject line blank, and in the body of the message, put: Subscribe papfriends-l ( That is the letter "L" and not the number "ONE")or Subscribe papfriends-l-digest


  • This list is for discussion of holistic or natural pet care. To subscribe: Send email message to: wellpet@ListService.net

    Leave subject line blank In body of message, type: subscribe wellpet-l Your Email Address


    This list is devoted to the care and well being of our senior dog buddies. It is open to all breeds and anyone with an interest in the older dog. To subscribe: Send email message to: listserv@listserv.aol.com Leave subject line blank In body of message, type: subscribe SENIOR-L your-name

    Detailed information about breeding genetics below. If your interested read on.

  • Breeding - Dogs or Pedigrees?

    By Dr. Catherine Marley


    All dogs carry defective genes.  These defective genes are usually “recessive” - that is, their expression can be covered up by the presence of a normal gene for that function.  It is estimated that the average dog carries 4 to 7 defective genes in it’s DNA. (The human estimate is 10 to 12).  Since genes are always carried in pairs, most of these abnormal genes are carried in a only single dose, so that their presence is completely concealed by the other, normal gene.


    What is a gene?  A useful analogy is that a gene is like a set of instructions given to a particular workman doing a small job on a very big construction site.  Each workman gets two sets of plans.  If one set is damaged, he still has one good set, and the job can proceed.  But if both sets are damaged the job will not be finished, or it will be done wrong.  A gene is a large molecule, a long double strand of DNA, composed of a backbone of two long sugar molecules linked by pairs of smaller molecules called “bases” or “nucleotides”.  It is the sequence of these nucleotides that encodes the information contained in a gene.


    How does a gene become defective?  During the normal cell division, an exact copy is made of each and every gene in the cell, and then it divides into two daughter cells which are each an exact copy of the original cell.  Defective genes are caused by a “mutation”.  If something happens to disrupt the exact replication of the DNA during the cell division, a defective gene results.  Only a few changes in the base sequence can render the information in that gene useless.  The process of aging is undoubtedly the effect of accumulated random defects of this sort, as are most types of cancer.


    In the formation of egg and sperm, a special type of division takes place.  Instead of replicating the genetic material, so that both the daughter cells have a full complement of genes (two genes of each type), the genetic material is divided, so that each reproductive cell has only one gene of each type.  When sperm and egg finally meet, the full complement of genes is restored, and a new individual, carrying half of its mother’s genes and half of its father’s genes is created.


    Selective breeding.  Nearly all breeding of domestic animals is selective as opposed to random.  Years ago, before the era of scientific genetics, breeding was done more by phenotype than by pedigree.  Race horses tended to be bred by the stopwatch.  That was where the money was.  Dairy cattle were bred by the volume and quality of their milk, meat animals, by the speed of maturation and ratio of feed to meat, and so on.  Later, it was recognized that breeding together closely related animals tended to speed up the process of “fixing” the desired traits within a few generations.


    Breeding by pedigree is the type of selective breeding most often practiced today.  It nearly always involves some degree of inbreeding.  The logic is simple.  We know that an animal’s traits are genetically controlled.  We can even calculate the percentage of a particular animal’s genes residing in the cells of one of its descendants.  When we mate closely related animals whose family shows (has the phenotype of) the desired trait, we are reasonably sure it will appear in the offspring.  Some breeders have carried this practice to remarkable extremes, failing to realize there is a “catch” to the pedigree method.


    What about those defective genes?  The ones you can’t see because they are “covered up” by intact ones.  When we breed closely related animals, (let us say because they have super rears), we can see the desired trait.  This trait is genetically controlled, like all traits.  These two closely related animals share the gene for their super rears as a result of their close genetic relationship.  What we can’t see is the PRA gene or the kidney disease gene that these two animals also share as a result of their close genetic relationship.  When we double up on the good rears we are also doubling up on the particular hidden defect they share.


    We can see the results of this type of concentration of mutations in some human populations which have been relatively inbred by reason of isolation due to status, geography, or religion.  Some examples that come to mind are Tay-Sachs disease in eastern European Jews, and hemophilia in some royal families.


    Phenotype breeding has been neglected in recent years.  It has fallen into underserved disrepute as the more popular inbreeding has produced faster and more dramatic changes.  I say undeservedly, because it has much to recommend it, and avoids some of the serious pitfalls of inbreeding.


    Again, we look at phenotype of two relatively unrelated animals.  They both have good rears, which we want.  Why do they share this trait?  For the same reason that the two related ones did: they both have the set of genes which produce good rears.  But what about the hidden, bad genes?  Since these animals could not have been selected for unseen characteristics, (after all, if you can’t see it you can’t consciously select for it), they probably do not share many of these defective genes.  To be sure, they still carry their load of defects in their own private collections, but they most likely each carry a different set.  This being the case, it is unlikely that any one of their offspring will inherit two copies of the same defective gene.  It is very likely, however, that they will all have good rears.


    Phenotype breeding is still selective breeding.  We are selecting those animals which show the desired traits, while minimizing the probability of doubling up on hidden, undesired ones.  Inbreeding and linebreeding, one the other hand, selects for both the phenotypic and genotypic traits, and dramatically increases the probability of producing animals homozygous for defects.


    The lesson in all this is that we should pay less attention to pedigrees, particularly in terms of looking for similarities on paper when we breed, and more attention to the dogs themselves.  All too many breeders make their breeding decisions on paper, and not in the flesh.  We need to consider the pedigrees as they relate to the qualities of the parent animal - did his mom and dad have good rears - rather than to insist he be related to our prospective brood bitch.  We can get the results we want by breeding unrelated “like to like”, without the tragic by products of inbreeding.


    A Glossary of Genetic Terms


    Allels:  different versions of the same gene (found at the same locus but in homologous chromosomes of in different individuals) that may produce different phenotypes.


    Allele frequency:  the fraction of all the alleles of a gene in a population that are of one type.


    Assortative mating:  a mating scheme that relies on the pairing of unrelated individuals with similar phenotypes to obtain consistency of type and reinforce desirable traits.


    Codominant alleles:  two alleles that have different effects that are distinguishable in a heterozygous individual (e.g. AB blood groups)


    Cross-breeding:  crossing two different breeds


    Dominant allele:  one that determines the phenotype even when there is only one copy (i.e. in a heterozygous individual)


    Drift:  changes in allele frequencies over time due to chance (as opposed to selection or mutation)


    Effective population size (Ne):  the size of a hypothetical stable, randomly-mating population that would have the same rate of gene loss or increase in inbreeding as the real population (size N).  As all finite populations are inbred to some degree and generally do not choose mates at random, Ne is typically 1/10N or less, particularly if fewer males breed than females.


    Epistasis:  used to describe the situation where one gene’s expression prevents the expression of another (e.g. you cannot determine whether an albino would have had black or brown hair, though these two traits are controlled by separate genes.)


    Fitness (relative):  The reproduction success of individuals of a particular genotype relative to the most fit genotype.


    Fixation:  loss of all alleles of a gene but one


    Founder:  an individual drawn from a source population who contributes genetically to the derived subpopulation.


    Founder effect:  changes in allele frequencies that occur when a subpopulation is formed from a larger one.  Typically many rare and usually undesirable alleles are excluded while a few carried by the founders get a big boost in frequency.


    Founder equivalents:  the number of hypothetical founders that would have the same diversity as the descendant population.  Generally much smaller than the actual number due to unequal use and allele loss (gene dropping).


    Gene:  that portion of the genome that carries the information for a single protein.  (In cases of proteins with multiple subunits, there may be a gene for each.)


    Gene dropping:  loss of alleles due to genetic drift


    Genetic bottleneck:  when population numbers are temporarily reduced to a level insufficient to maintain the diversity in the population


    Genetic diversity:  usually expressed in terms of percentage of genes that are polymorphic and/or are heterozygous.


    Genome:  the total genetic makeup of an organism


    Heritable:  passed on from parents to progeny through the chromosomes/DNA.


    Heritability:  the fraction of the variability in a trait that is caused by genetic differences


    Heterozygous:  carrying two different alleles of a gene


    Heterozygous advantage:  a situation where the heterozygous genotype for a particular gene shows the highest relative fitness


    Heterozygous insufficiency:  when the heterozygous genotype lacks sufficient gene product to have the normal phenotype.  (Approximately equivalent to partial dominance.)


    Heterosis:  a situation where crossing two inbred lines yields progeny that are more healthy/vigorous than their parents.  (More commonly used in plant breeding.)


    Homologous chromosomes:  in higher plants and animals, chromosomes are found in nearly identical “homologous” pairs, one coming from the sire and the other from the dam.  A dog has 39 pairs, or 78 in total.  Only one of each, chosen at random, is passed on through eggs or sperm to the progeny.


    Linebreeding:  a scheme that attempts to maintain a high contribution of one or two ancestors through successive generations.  Often used by breeders for any inbreeding less intensive than between first-degree relatives.


    Linkage:  a measure of how frequently two genes found on the same chromosome remain together during gamete (egg or sperm) formation.


    Locus:  the location of a gene on a chromosome.


    Map (aka linage map):  a drawing showing the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.


    Mean kinship (mk):  a measure of how related an individual is to the other members of a population.  Generally computed as the average IC for the hypothetical progeny of the individual mated to all other members of the population (both sexes).  A low average mk for a population indicates that most of the diversity carried by the founders has been retained.


    Monomorphic genes:  have only one common allele (rare alleles with frequencies of less than 0.001% may still occur).


    Mutation:  a change in the sequence of the base pairs in a DNA molecule.


    Mutation rate:  the number of new mutations that occur per gene per gamete per generation.


    Outcrossing:  mating two individuals of the same breed that are sufficiently unrelated that the IC of the progeny is lower than the average of the parents.


    Polymorphic genes:  have 2 or more common alleles in the population


    Recombination:  the reciprocal exchange of portions of two homologous chromosomes (usually equivalent) during gamete formation.


    Recombinant frequency (RF):  how often two linked genes are separated by recombination, generally expressed as a percentage of total progeny.

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